Catching up with Wessex… and Judith

I have recently realized that with all of the events going in France at the end of our last raiding season, I failed to catch up on Wessex, and with Judith’s situation. I do apologize for that, but in my defense, things were and are still a bit messy to say the least in Paris right now! The events of Wessex were not of  high importance to those of us remaining in France with Rollo.  Now that things have calmed down somewhat and we are playing a waiting game whilst trying to establish ourselves here with the Franks, I can take some time to share what is taking place in Wessex and ponder what the future might hold for my friend Judith.

Judith the daughter Judith the wife Judith the pawn

You can read much of Judith’s story so far here:

https://timeslipsblog.wordpress.com/viking-saga-judiths-story/

Judith’s admission of adultery with the Priest Athelstan, and the resulting birth of her son Alfred, has put her in a very precarious position. Ecbert was able to save her and the child by citing it as a miracle, and convincing his son Aethelwulf  that it was just that, a sign from God that this was a blessed event and this is a holy child. Now, we all understand that Aethelwulf is a devoutly religious man but surely he would not be so completely gullible as to not have his own personal doubts and resentments remaining about this whole sordid affair.   Ecbert has managed to save Judith and the precious little Alfred, save face with the church, and avoid some tearing apart of their family reputation but rumors will continue to abound about Aethelwulf  being a cuckhold to Judith’s adulterous affair. This will most likely always haunt Aethelwulf in some ways and no matter how hard he might try to forgive, I think it will always remain there in the back of his mind and his heart… causing him even more inner turmoil in his attempts to be closer to God.  For Judith, the events have placed her even more in the middle of this underlying battle between Father and son. And, make no mistake, there is a underlying battle brewing between Aethelwulf and Ecbert.

Ecbert gives a clear clue that in his mind, realistically anyone is dispensable or disposable if they interfere with his plans… including family.

I don't have any friends it's better that way.

I don’t have any friends it’s better that way.

Aethelwulf comes to realization that his Father's plan included his death...

Aethelwulf comes to realization that his Father’s plan included his death…

We have seen so many times in the past that Ecbert is indeed corrupt… ruthless and manipulative, willing to go to any lengths in order to maintain his control of Wessex and achieve his goal of becoming King or Bretwalda of all the Kingdoms. His plan is to conquer Mercia, then move on to Northumbria… with those two kingdoms taken, it would be an easy undertaking to then take East Anglia- which no one so far has made any mention of in this particular story. We’ve seen Ecbert use his son to accomplish some of these goals and as we see with the last event in Mercia, he is willing to sacrifice his son towards this end. Ecbert sees  Aethelwulf as weak and easily manipulated into doing his dirty work for him in the name and reason of religious right. The best example of this was when Ecbert convinced Aethelwulf to go forth and take care of that situation in the Viking village. For Ecbert, it had little to do with religious right or beliefs but more to do with realizing he might have made a mistake with allowing that settlement in the first place. But, in refection, he did need those men to help him beat down Mercia. If it took promising and placating them with a settlement then he was more than willing to play that card at the time. The one thought or question remains in the disasterous outcome of the village. Would Ecbert have went to the same lengths had Lagertha and or Athelstan remained? Ecbert is one who needs to be in control of every situation at all times, much like Ragnar… Ecbert and Ragnar both made serious errors in judgement with this whole situation. I believe they both under estimated the outcomes and each other even though they both know how corrupt each other is.  Would Ecbert resorted to such slaughter if he did not feel some rage and resentment at both Lagertha and Athelstan leaving him? And, ultimately, Ragnar must accept his own responsibility and guilt in leaving the settlement unguarded, unprotected in the first place. He under estimated just how far Ecbert might go in dealing with this mess, in fixing any possible mistake he felt he made or extracting a personal revenge on Ragnar.

 

Ecbert practices his own strange religion

Ecbert practices his own strange religion

Ecbert has maybe embibed in some of those shrooms and now rambles on considering himself a philosopher

Ecbert has maybe embibed in some of those shrooms and now rambles on considering himself a philosopher

Ecbert is somewhat of puzzle as far as his religion is concerned. He does  not seem to be  a particularly devout Christian but he does know full well that he needs the church on his side in order to achieve his goals.  At times he seems more interested in what ever  beliefs those ancients Romans that he is so fond of, held? Yet in contrast to his lesser faith and his affinity for more ancient practices, he seems to firmly believe that his grandson Alfred is a special holy child? He believes that there was truly something special about his friend Athelstan and that what ever that was, has been passed on to this child.

ecbert promised judith that he will do everything in his power to keep her and her baby safe

ecbert promised judith that he will do everything in his power to keep her and her baby safe

his name is Alfred He shall be great

What ever Ecbert may personally believe in, he knows full well that his own goals can not be achieved with out the backing of the Christian Church. The church was unhappy with this pagan settlement so rather than deal with it himself, he sent Aethelwulf to do it. He knew that as a religious zealot, Aethelwulf would look at this as an act of God’s punishment on sinners such as those Pagans. Aethelwulf looked at that assignment as a bond of trust from Ecbert. Being as religious as he is, Aethelwulf feels he must ever be loyal to his anointed King and Father. Aethelwulf is continuously torn between his religious beliefs and the harsh realities of his life and feelings of failure with his Father. He wants to honor God and his faith, but he also wants to prove to Ecbert that he is worthy and capable of ruling an empire such as Ecbert envisions.  He has the same sort of inner conflicts with Judith. I think that he is torn in his wanting to believe that this is a sign from God, that his faith tells him to forgive… yet he can not help but see her betrayal every time he looks at her son, Alfred.

aethelwulf: This is naught to do with you Father this is between me and my slut of a wife!

aethelwulf: This is naught to do with you Father this is between me and my slut of a wife!

aethelwulf: It just reminds me of my wife's whoring ways and how she has not suffered enough for her sins.

aethelwulf: It just reminds me of my wife’s whoring ways and how she has not suffered enough for her sins.

 

We see signs of  Aethelwulf’s struggle with accepting this forgiveness and this son as he makes habit of throwing Judith’s adultery and betrayal in her face until Ecbert intervenes on her behalf. What we see unfolding is Judith’s misery and her difficult plight in this household where she and her son have been saved but to what real purpose? Because of her admission and her mark of adultery, she is seen as somewhat of a pariah by Aethelwulf and most likely many others in the household. Ecbert has saved her and Alfred, but realistically, that does little to improve her circumstances in the beginning. Judith is alive but still living in fear, waiting for a next move against her or her son. She must tread even more cautiously and carefully now in order to assure the safety of her son should anything happen to her. In some ways, her predicament is even more perilous now than it was before. Now, every move she makes, she must consider the fate and future of both of her sons.

ecbert showers affection on alfred and wonders about athelstan

ecbert showers affection on alfred and wonders about athelstan

From the time of Alfred’s birth, Ecbert is completely besotted and devoted to the child to the point of ignoring his older grandson who by all rights no matter what, should be the heir as the oldest son. By all rights, this older son and his future heirs should inherit the throne and even without question as to Alfred’s parentage, he should be looked on as merely the spare. Ecbert, it seems though, has other plans which he secretly shares with Judith… he sees Alfred as blessed and it is his intent to see Alfred as ruler. This information would not bode well for Aethelwulf or his son by Judith.  We know that Ecbert would easily go so far as to sacrifice his son, but would he just as easily go to that length in sacrificing this other grandson? At some point, this thought will have to play heavily on Judith’s mind and heart. How can she manage some way to keep both of her sons safe?  This would be a predominant thought for any Mother put in such a situation. Judith’s ongoing thoughts must certainly be not so much of her own happiness but for the lives and the future of her children.  On a historical side note here, Michael Hirst has made comments as to following more closely to history, Alfred’s path to the throne. He is on his way to taking this closer path, I think, with Ecbert’s obsessive belief that Alfred is special and should rule. In history, someone did think this and paved the child’s way to the throne with a special dispensation and affirmation from the Pope.  The reason behind this special affirmation remains somewhat of a mystery yet today!

Alfred was born in the village of Wanating, now Wantage, Oxfordshire. He was the youngest son of King Æthelwulf of Wessex, by his first wife, Osburh.  In 853, at the age of four, Alfred is said to have been sent to Rome where, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle,  he was confirmed by Pope Leo IV who “anointed him as king”. Victorian writers later interpreted this as an anticipatory coronation in preparation for his ultimate succession to the throne of Wessex. However, his succession could not have been foreseen at the time, as Alfred had three living elder brothers. A letter of Leo IV shows that Alfred was made a “consul“; a misinterpretation of this investiture, deliberate or accidental, could explain later confusion.  It may also be based on Alfred’s later having accompanied his father on a pilgrimage to Rome where he spent some time at the court of Charles the Bald, King of the Franks, around 854–855.

On their return from Rome in 856, Æthelwulf was deposed by his son Æthelbald. With civil war looming, the magnates of the realm met in council to hammer out a compromise. Æthelbald would retain the western shires (i.e., traditional Wessex), and Æthelwulf would rule in the east. When King Æthelwulf died in 858, Wessex was ruled by three of Alfred’s brothers in succession, Æthelbald, Æthelberht and Æthelred.

Bishop Asser tells the story of how as a child Alfred won a prize of a volume of poetry in Saxon, offered by his mother to the first of her children able to memorize it.  Legend also has it that the young Alfred spent time in Ireland seeking healing. Alfred was troubled by health problems throughout his life. It is thought that he may have suffered from Crohn’s disease. Statues of Alfred in Winchester and Wantage portray him as a great warrior. Evidence suggests he was not physically strong, and though not lacking in courage, he was noted more for his intellect than a warlike character.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_the_Great

 

ecbert: what are Judith's feelings towards her father

ecbert: what are Judith’s feelings towards her father

ecbert insinuates a fate for northumbria in front of judith

ecbert insinuates a fate for northumbria in front of Judith

 Judith is beginning to walk a fearful and cautious path within the household, enduring Aethelwulf’s taunts and wondering about an uncertain future for her sons. Ecbert ever the manipulative one, takes advantage of her fears and uses them in his tactic to control everyone. In his ploy to gain even more control of Judith than he already has, he uses Aethelwulf and even her Father- he questions her loyalty and wonders aloud just where those loyalties might be.

 

ecbert starts out with friendly conversation wanting to know how his grandsons are. He then is more specific in his inquiry of wanting to know how Alfred is.

ecbert starts out with friendly conversation wanting to know how his grandsons are. He then is more specific in his inquiry of wanting to know how Alfred is.

Judith reassures him that Both sons are well

 Ecbert calls Judith to a private meeting to discuss the future and what it might hold for little Alfred should she not have protection against Aethelwulf in the future. He makes much of warning Judith of the dangers facing her and Alfred if they are not protected in some way from Aethelwulf’s  vengeance. Ecbert vows his protection but of course there must be some return or recompense for such protection. Judith is not ignorant nor as naïve as she once might have been, she knows exactly what Ecbert is suggesting as her recompense for this protection. Ecbert also suggests that he will keep both her sons safe in  recompense for any such unsaid agreement between them.

ecbert promised judith that he will do everything in his power to keep her and her baby safe

ecbert promised judith that he will do everything in his power to keep her and her baby safe

ecbert: I have promised you faithfully that I will protect you and your sons especially Alfred

ecbert: I have promised you faithfully that I will protect you and your sons especially Alfred

judith knows where he's headed with this recompense

judith knows where he’s headed with this recompense

Judith understands both the spoken and the unspoken threat

Judith understands both the spoken and the unspoken threat

ecbert I freely offer my protection but of course there must be some recompense.

ecbert I freely offer my protection but of course there must be some recompense.

 

ecbert: I want you to be my mistress

ecbert: I want you to be my mistress

She  understands just how powerful and controlling Ecbert is and knows how far he would be willing to go to get what he wants. Ecbert proposes that in return for her sharing his bed, he will assure her safety and that of her son, Alfred.  She knows what Ecbert is capable of and she also had a good idea of what Aethelwulf is capable of as well. In his attempt to seal this bargain, Ecbert even goes far as to bring Athelstan into the conversation.

ecbert still uses athelstan as his hold over judith

ecbert still uses athelstan as his hold over Judith

judith is sucked into this game by the memory of athelstan

judith is sucked into this game by the memory of Athelstan

So, Judith becomes a pawn yet again, truly caught between Father and son in a situation that could bring danger to either or both of her sons. For Judith, this is not a matter of what is religiously moral, ethical or right in God’s eyes. In her mind, I think she has already gone beyond that with her adultery and with the church’s treatment of her for that sin. No, for Judith now, this becomes an act or an attempt to guarantee the safety of at least one of her children. If she makes this choice to become Ecbert’s mistress, she is hoping to save Alfred’s life and assure some future for him… but in doing so, there must still be some thought of what will become of her older son because of Ecbert’s insistence of Alfred being the holy one, the one who shall rule. By ensuring Alfred’s safety, is she then condemning her older son to just as much danger and uncertain fate from Ecbert in the future? As I have mentioned, and as Judith put it… she is not ignorant. This thought has to be playing in her heart and tearing her apart as she goes ahead with her decision to share Ecbert’s bed.  Some part of her also has to be thinking of Ecbert’s penchant for duplicity in all matters. She has to be thinking of this trait and wondering how far she should trust him. Some part of her must be wondering when he will decide that she is of no use to him or his plans and then what would her fate be?  Even if she has these doubts and does not trust him, in all reality, she has little choice in this matter and she knows it. She knows that Ecbert has spun his web around her and her children quite tightly and she must accept that once again, she is a pawn in his game.

judith realizes that once more she is a pawn.

judith realizes that once more she is a pawn.

judith is called to Ecbert's chambers

judith is called to Ecbert’s chambers

Judith accepts her fate and meets Ecbert in his private chamber

As she enters into this arrangement and his bed, she reminds him of the terms of this agreement… that Alfred will be safe.

judith let's just refresh ourselves on the terms of this arrangement Then you will protect Alfred

judith let’s just refresh ourselves on the terms of this arrangement Then you will protect Alfred

Ecbert has calculated this plan well, or so he assumes. He sends Aethelwulf on what should be a sacrificial fool’s errand to ensure Kwenitrith’s loyalty and remind her of her puppet status… probably fully expecting Aethelwulf to be killed in the mission thereby leaving Judith free for his continued dalliance and for  baby Alfred to be named the heir because of his special holy status.  This sacrificial death at Kweni’s hands would also ensure a new war against Mercia in retaliation for Aethelwulf’s death, one which Ecbert would no doubt expect to easily win and be backed by the church’s power behind him.

Aethelwulf comes to realization that his Father's plan included his death...

Aethelwulf comes to realization that his Father’s plan included his death…

Yep Dad has done it again

At this sudden realization, Aethelwulf can do nothing but laugh and warn Kweni of what should befall her with his pre-planned death.

Haaaa finally one up on you kweni we've destroyed his settlement

He is quite calm when he explains the situation to Kwentirith and informs her there is no longer any settlement to bargain for.

 Aethelwulf  however, realizes just how far Ecbert is willing to go and how little he really matters to Ecbert’s plans for the future. Aethelwulf survives the trip to Mercia and in his own way warns Kwentirith of  how precarious her own situation is. When he returns home, he makes some insinuation and innuendo towards Ecbert that he understands how the trip was intended to play out. It is also during that dinner when Aethelwulf and Judith begin to understand more of this ultimate power game of Ecbert’s. This last family dinner gives some insight as to what the future might hold for Aethelwulf and for Judith. For Aethelfulf, there is the realization of just how devious and treacherous his Father really is along with an inner questioning of his ongoing loyalty to this Father who would so easily see him dead.

ecbert watches aethelwulf and judith and has to wonder how this is going to play out

ecbert watches aethelwulf and judith and has to wonder how this is going to play out

At the beginning of the meal, there is some of the usual resentment and insults from Aethelwulf but Judith refuses to be cowed this time and responds in a way that causes Aethelwulf to quiet and possibly rethink his actions in light of his current situation with his Father.

judith treads carefully through this dinner with father son husband and now lover

judith treads carefully through this dinner with father son husband and now lover

judith admits her flaws I am not so much of a hippocrate that I could condemn you.

judith admits her flaws I am not so much of a hippocrate that I could condemn you.

ecbert tries to make light of it isn't that just like Kwentirith

Ecbert tries to make light of Aethelwulf’s comments and description of what took place

judith's realization of just how evil and ruthless Ecbert is

When Aethelwulf makes mention of sacrifices, questionable outcomes of the event and divided loyalties, Judith realizes just how far Ecbert is willing to go in his schemes…

After Judith speaks up for herself, there seems to be some unsaid truce between her and Aethelwulf through the rest of the dinner. They both appear more focused on Ecbert’s responses and behavior in light of Aethelwulf’s comments. Aethelwulf for his part seems intent on some inner thoughts of trying to be more God or at least Jesus like in acceptance and forgiving attitudes… At one point a look comes across Judith’s face as if to think, “Well, Fuck! He’s trying to forgive me… I slept with that Ass for nothing!”

judith's sudden thought well fuck he's forgiving me then I slept with that ass for nothing

judith’s sudden thought well fuck he’s forgiving me then I slept with that ass for nothing

There is also a fleeting attempt towards forgiveness on his part towards Judith.  For Judith, there is a revelation that she could in some way hold a bit of her own power or control in this game… as she watches this interaction between Father and son, as she sees some small glimmer of forgiveness or at least acceptance from Aethelwulf, she begins to have thoughts of how she might weigh this all to her own advantage? The last we see of Judith is her with a look of  her own calculation and pondering of how she may not be as powerless as she thought she was.

great hall of Wessex

family dinner in wessex Ecbert's somewhat rude and condescending comments A toast to my son.

family dinner in wessex Ecbert’s somewhat rude and condescending comments A toast to my son.

 Judith watches and listens to this interaction between Father and son escalate into a final rather condescending toast by Ecbert towards Aethelwulf. In the end, Judith has a look of her own possibilities for the future… as though she suddenly realizes that she is not without her own power in this game.

Judith is scoping out this situation now between Ecbert and Aethelwulf

There is one very important thing that Judith must keep in mind and make assurances that there will be no doubts of in her future…. Judith has proven herself to be quite a proficient and fertile breeder. She has already had one instance of adultery leading to an unplanned and untimely pregnancy given the fact that Aethelwulf had been away in battle and she had not had sex with him for quite some time before she entered into the risky affair with Athelstan.  Should such another occurance take place, I am quite sure there would be no acceptance or forgiveness forthcoming from either Aethwulf or the church! This affair with Ecbert has taken another turn of risk and danger for her. How could she begin to explain to Aethelwulf that she was sleeping with his Father this time? Although Ecbert probably did not bargain on Aethelwulf returning, he had returned and now Ecbert has another possible sticky situation do deal with…. I believe it would be in both his and Judith’s best interests for Aethelwulf to be placated and for him to be encouraged to see to his husbandly duties. Judith needs to do whatever possible to be in Aethelwulf’s good graces and in his bed very soon!

 

This brings us to a glimpse of the future where Judith seems to have found some of that power?

judith holds her own in this game of power

 

Looking towards that future, she has obviously survived and also managed to keep both of her sons alive! Job well done Judith!  These two adorable boys play Judith’s sons Athelred and Alfred in the next season so we do know that she has succeeded in keeping them both alive so far.

 

Athelred and Alfred Judith's son in season 4 vikings

Athelred and Alfred Judith’s son in season 4 Vikings

Of course, what we do not know yet, is what she has had to do to ensure the safety of both boys? That all remains to be told in the next season.  We do know from previews that Aethelwulf and Ecbert are both still alive so Ecbert has not yet succeeded in killing his son off. Perhaps Aethelwulf has succeeded in finding some of his own power in the future. What could any power grabbing for Aethelwulf mean for Ecbert in the future?

ecbert

As we look toward the future of Wessex and Judith, there is one last thought I want to present. This is my own personal thought, a sort of What if Scenario…. In upcoming previews of next season, we see an arrest and rather brutal torture of Floki.  Now, we should all understand how these images are spliced together in such a way to provoke us, to lead us to often wrong conclusions and keep us guessing or assuming as to what takes place. What we can be positive about is that Floki is arrested by Bjorn for the murder of Athelstan, that he is chained for a time in the village and rebuked by Ragnar for his disloyalty.

Bjorn announces: I order the arrest of Floki

Bjorn announces: I order the arrest of Floki

Bjorn: I order the arrest of Floki

Bjorn: I order the arrest of Floki

Floki's punishment begins.

Floki’s punishment begins.

ragnar to athelstan you betrayed my trust

ragnar to Floki, you betrayed my trust

you betrayed my love of you

you betrayed my love of you

At some point later, we also see Floki’s gruesome torture…

floki suffers an even worse punishment

Of course, we see this all together and make the assumption that this is Ragnar’s direct doing. Many have made the comment and consideration that while this could be a show of Ragnar’s deep bitterness, his increasing thoughts of personal revenge and ultimately a show of his control and force over his subjects. Many have commented that such an act would serve to alienate the villagers and some of his warriors as well, who already have serious doubts and concerns about his  religious beliefs. Many of the villagers would have sided with Floki and would see this act as more of Ragnar’s disloyalty to their Gods. It certainly would not endear him to most of the villagers and all it would set up is an even stronger resentment against him along with more serious thoughts of revolt and replacing him as their King. 

What Ragnar really needs to do upon his return home is salvage his reputation with the more mistrusting subject. This act is not going to accomplish anything but create more doubt, rule by fear alone and villagers or warriors becoming even more disloyal to him and possibly slipping away in the middle of the night to other sides. When one attempts to rule by fear alone, this is a common occurrence. You can not watch every single person 24 hours a day, he should be well aware of this since it was what many of them did under Harald’s and then Horik’s rule. Another thing he needs to do is get back to England. In order to do that he is going to need some help from these villagers. So, other than stringing Floki up himself what might his options be?

He has arrested Floki for his disloyalty in killing Athelstan but to kill him himself is going to make him look really bad. An alternate option would be to use the unknown fate of those massacred villagers to his favor in another devious plot or scheme. He does not have to tell the villagers anything of their fate but he could imply that they would be in grave danger if the fate of Athelstan is discovered. And he could of course imply that rumors travel, there are missionaries in their country and short of killing every single missionary- which would start an even bigger war, word will get back to England. So, what might he do to alleviate such a war and keep their settlers safe? If he were still as truly devious and manipulative as we saw him last, he would propose that they bring Floki to England to appease the English as a sort of peace offering… Now, the villagers would still be upset with the idea but if it were laid out as either Floki or their relative lives, they might grudgingly go along with proposal.  To give Ragnar some credit, though I’m not really sure deserves it… he may not even be planning to actually sacrifice Floki but just put the fear of the Gods into him?  He needs a way into England behind a ruse or scheme in order to find out for sure what actually happened and who ultimately was responsible. Of course he probably knows it was Ecbert, but you can’t just go knock on his Castle door and accuse him outright. No, you need a scheme to get yourself in the door. So, he uses Floki as his scheme, his scapegoat, his peace offering. He pretends to know nothing of the massacre, Ecbert claims innocence of it and would offer up Aethelwulf as his own scapegoat. Ecbert wants to get rid of Aethelwulf anyway, and what better way than to say, trade him for Floki? Because, in reality, who else would want personal revenge or vengeance on Floki besides Ragnar? 

a game of what if2

So, in my personal pondering of a possible outcome or alternate storyline… What if Ragnar brings Floki to Ecbert and this is Ecbert’s  personal revenge rather than Ragnar’s?  What if Aethelwulf in his attempt to save his own life, spills all he knows of Ecbert’s plans and of Kweni’s secret? Could this be the cause of the looks of puzzlement and fear on Ragnar and Kweni?

Kweni is back but looking a bit rattled

Kweni is back but looking a bit rattled

it's not often we see fear on Ragnar's face

it’s not often we see fear on Ragnar’s face

What is the fate of this baby? Who ends up with him and why does he become so important?

Let me present my son Prince Magnus

And why would Aethelwulf ever think of going against his Father… besides possibly trying to save his own life of course. Could he be racked with some inner guilt about the slaughter of those innocent settlers in his ongoing battle between his own wicked ways and that which his God tells him is wrong? We do see a glimpse of Aethelwulf’s thoughts on ruling…

I have feelings of duty I try to do what is right for my kingdom and for god

I have feelings of duty I try to do what is right for my kingdom and for god

Is this a glimpse of a changing and evolving Aethelwulf? Could this be a path of Hirst’s back towards some actual history, such as that path with Alfred? In history, other than a few early skirmishes The Vikings did not pose a major threat during his reign. In 853 he married his daughter Æthelswith to King Burgred of Mercia, and in the same year he joined a Mercian expedition to Wales to restore the traditional Mercian hegemony. In 855 Æthelwulf went on pilgrimage to Rome. In preparation he gave a “decimation”, donating a tenth of his personal property to his subjects; he appointed his eldest surviving son Æthelbald to act as King of Wessex in his absence, and next son Æthelberht to rule Kent and the south-east. He spent a year in Rome, and on his way back he married Judith, the twelve or thirteen year old daughter of the West Frankish King Charles the Bald. When Æthelwulf returned to England, Æthelbald refused to surrender the West Saxon throne, and Æthelwulf agreed to divide the kingdom, taking the east and leaving the west in his son’s hands. On Æthelwulf’s death in 858 he left Wessex to Æthelbald and Kent to Æthelberht, but Æthelbald’s death only two years later led to the re-unification of the kingdom.    In the twentieth century Æthelwulf’s reputation among historians was low, and he was seen as pious and impractical, but historians in the twenty-first century regard him as one of the most successful West Saxon kings, who laid the foundations for the success of his son, Alfred the Great.

If you look at Aethelwulf’s actual history, you might be reminded of an early conversation that might have been deemed unimportant at the time but could serve as some clue to possibilities in the future. Aethelwulf and Rollo once had a limited conversation about friendship. Floki was disgusted by the whole idea and Rollo gave a clue to his deeper thoughts that may also come up in the future as Rollo begins his relationship with the Frankish.

rollo understands the need for friends and alliances in this new world

Aethelwulf and Rollo have a stilted brief conversation about differences but friends or allies. They were both just trying placate each other at the time but I think both of them understood some of the underlying idea and concept.

rollo watches floki leave and tries to figure his friend out

Rollo tries to explain this concept of friends/allies to Floki but Floki dismisses and walks away in disgust

rollo comes to better understanding of Ragnar's thoughts

Rollo has a conversation with Ragnar and comes to better understand Ragnar’s thoughts on religion, acceptance and the bigger world… this is of course when Ragnar’s thoughts were more rational.

In history, Aethelwulf maintained good relations with other Kingdoms such as Mercia and with Wales. He was on good terms with the Frankish Carolingian dynasty and seems to have based his kingship on their system. “Æthelwulf ran a Carolingian-style family firm of plural realms, held together by his own authority as father-king, and by the consent of distinct élites.”His ealdormen enjoyed a high status, and sometimes attested charters above the king’s son.  His reign is the first for which there is evidence of royal priests, and Malmesbury Abbey regarded him as an important benefactor, who is said to have been the donor of a shrine for the relics of Saint Aldhelm. In ninth-century Mercia and Kent, royal charters were produced by religious houses, each with its own style, but in Wessex there was a single royal diplomatic tradition, probably by a single agency acting for the king. This may have originated in Egbert’s reign, and it becomes clear in the 840s, when Æthelwulf had a Frankish secretary called Felix.  

In 853 a Viking army defeated and killed ealdermen Ealhhere of Kent and Huda of Surrey at Thanet, and in 855 Danish Vikings for the first time stayed over the winter on Sheppey, before carrying on their pillaging of eastern England .  However, during Æthelwulf’s reign Viking attacks were contained and did not present a major threat.

Æthelwulf’s reputation among historians was low in the twentieth century. In 1935 R. H. Hodgkin attributed his pilgrimage to Rome to “the unpractical piety which had led him to desert his kingdom at a time of great danger”, and described his marriage to Judith as “the folly of a man senile before his time”.  To Frank Stenton in the 1960s he was “a religious and unambitious man, for whom engagement in war and politics was an unwelcome consequence of rank”.   One dissenter was Finberg, who in 1964 described him as “a king whose valour in war and princely munificence recalled the figures of the heroic age”, but in 1979 Michael Enright said: “More than anything else he appears to have been an impractical religious enthusiast.” Early medieval writers, especially Asser, emphasise his religiosity, and his preference for consensus seen in the concessions made to avert a civil war on his return from Rome.   In Joanna Story’s view “his legacy has been clouded by accusations of excessive piety which (to modern sensibilities at least) has seemed at odds with the demands of early medieval kingship”.

In the twenty-first century he is seen very differently by historians. Æthelwulf is not listed in the index of Peter Hunter Blair‘s An Introduction to Anglo-Saxon England, first published in 1956, but in a new introduction to the 2003 edition Keynes listed him among people “who have not always been accorded the attention they might be thought to deserve … for it was he, more than any other, who secured the political fortune of his people in the ninth century, and who opened up channels of communication which led through Frankish realms and across the Alps to Rome”.  According to Joanna Story: “Æthelwulf acquired and cultivated a reputation both in Francia and Rome which is unparalleled in the sources since the height of Offa’s and Coenwulf’s power at the turn of the ninth century”.

Nelson describes him as “one of the great underrated among Anglo-Saxons”, and complains that she was only allowed 2,500 words for him in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, compared with 15,000 for Edward II and 35,000 for Elizabeth I.  She says:

Æthelwulf’s reign has been relatively under-appreciated in modern scholarship. Yet he laid the foundations for Alfred’s success. To the perennial problems of husbanding the kingdom’s resources, containing conflicts within the royal family, and managing relations with neighbouring kingdoms, Æthelwulf found new as well as traditional answers. He consolidated old Wessex, and extended his reach over what is now Devon and Cornwall. He ruled Kent, working with the grain of its political community. He borrowed ideological props from Mercians and Franks alike, and went to Rome, not to die there, like his predecessor Ine, … but to return, as Charlemagne had, with enhanced prestige. Æthelwulf coped more effectively with Scandinavian attacks than did most contemporary rulers.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%86thelwulf

In light of these more recent and contemporary views on Aethelwulf’s life and his guidance of  Alfred toward the throne despite the claims of older brothers and even his nephews by brother Athelred, it will be interesting to see how Hirst approaches the future of Aethelwulf, Ecbert and Judith. He makes much mention of his versions of history going in round about ways to connect in some way to actual history. And, as I’ve mentioned already, if you watch closely, you can see glimpses of change and evolution in Aethelwulf and Judith’s relationship. There is one fact that does come close to Hirst’s storyline regarding Judith’s future with Aethelwulf and any children she might potentially bear him.

Although in history, Judith was his second wife and bore him no children, there is some hint of something special regarding her and her relationship to him? Most wives at that time were not anointed Queens, they were just the King’s wife. Judith was however recognized as an anointed Queen.  Part of this was due to her status as Carolingian Princess, but what ever the reason, Hirst’s manipulation of history or the actual accounting of it, it made Judith’s status special.  The anointing of Judith as “a charismatic sanctification which enhanced her status, blessed her womb and conferred additional throne-worthiness on her male offspring.”   Æthelwulf insisted that Judith should sit beside him on the throne until the end of his life, and according to Asser this was “without any disagreement or dissatisfaction on the part of his nobles”. 

The rest of Judith’s real Carolingian status relates to Gisla as well. Gisla was a daughter, a princess of that Carolingian dynasty. Carolingian princesses rarely married and were usually sent to nunneries, and it was almost unknown for them to marry foreigners so Gisla should consider herself lucky for her marriage to Rollo considering her other options of Odo or a nunnery! So, Wipe that pout off from your face, dry your Damnable tears and Thank your God for your one chance at a possible happy marriage! Quit complaining, you could be Judith’s shoes…. or even Torvi’s with a wretched wife abusing little weasel named Erlandeur!  There are other women out there in far worse circumstances than you!

a tearful gisla

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

21 thoughts on “Catching up with Wessex… and Judith

  1. What an exellent synopsis! amazing detail!
    Question: Did Ecbert tell Judith he specifically wanted Alfred as king? I dont remember the episode.
    My prediction is Ecbert will “get rid” of his son, and marry Judith so he can raise Alfred.

    Liked by 2 people

    • Thanks so much Kukumo! I know he talked about his plans for Alfred. I will have to go back and re-watch it yet again to jog my memory on it! I’ve been working on this update for a few weeks now and was trying to finally get it finished up tonight!

      I think Ecbert may continue to try getting rid of Aethelwulf. now after this last incident with Kweni, though, I think Aethelwulf is wising up to Ecbert’s plans and be extremely cautious from now on!

      Liked by 2 people

      • I think I remember Eckbert saying he had plans for Alfred to be King. I think he told it to Judith. He’s obsessed reading the Latin words, maybe he thinks that Baby Alfred can do this when he grows up.. Was thinking, Remember Aslaug killed that missionary? Just where did that missionary come from? Was he a Saxon? So now there are two dead Christians. Did Ragnar bury the old man from the Viking settlement? Did anyone see him? REmember the night Athelstan was murdered by Floki, well Rollo was on the street. Floki passed him. Did Rollo speak to Athelstan right before Floki killed him. Maybe Ragnar will say Rollo was involved in the murder. Will Ragnar frame Floki and Aslaug for the failure at the Viking settlement? Maybe Aethulwulf and Alfred flee to Frankia and will Aethulwulf take the secret of what happened at the Viking settlement with him. Only Aethulwulf knows the truth. Eckbert didn’t tell anyone else. REmember he had all the nobles murdered. I wonder if Ragnar is going to use it all as a reason to invade and “rescue” prince Magnus.

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  2. Amazing blog post! I love it! Thank you for all the work, research and imagination you put into your writing! Judith has a very narrow path to tread and danger from both her husband Aethelwulf and her father in law King Ecbert, but she may prevail if she acts wisely and remains calm and inwardly or spiritually strong. She is a strong character and is developing some wisdom! She may well be following the advice of the Lord Jesus when he sent his disciples out to preach, saying, ““Behold, I send you out as sheep in the midst of wolves” (Matthew 10:16, first part). One modern version reads, “Stay alert. This is hazardous work I’m assigning you. You’re going to be like sheep running through a wolf pack” (The Message). That sounds pretty risky to me.
    Jesus also gave the 12 disciples advice about what to do in this hazardous situation. This is good advice for each of us as we go through our daily lives: “Therefore be wise as serpents and harmless as doves” (last part of verse 16).”
    See the following explanation of what this means: http://www.ucg.org/beyond-today/what-do-you-mean-wise-and-harmless

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  3. Judith, I love your blog and find much that you have to share fascinating and your insight is very astute! However I ask you to please correct a minor error in the label beneath the above picture of King Ragnar, you wrote, “ragnar to athelstan you betrayed my trust”. That should say “Ragnar to Floki you betrayed my trust!” The picture is from the Vikings Season 4 trailer where Ragnar is seen speaking as he passes by to a Floki who is chained and bound to a post in public. Otherwise, your conjectures based on the TV show Vikings and Michael Hirst and how history and reality intertwine in the creative mind of Michael Hirst are always thoughtful and quite creative as well! Thank you for all of the time and effort you pour into your blog here! You make it
    amazing! ❤️

    Liked by 1 person

    • Ughhhhh Thanks so much for picking up that error Patricia! I’ve been working on this article for a few weeks now and was so happy to finally be finished that I may have inadvertently made a few errors on it!

      Liked by 1 person

      • I think Aethulwulf really loved Judith. He’s stunned when she tells him about the baby Athelstan thing, he’s just in so much pain he’s stunned. I think he then killed the Vikings in a blind rage. I think he knows about his dad and Judith. I think he might take the children and flee to Rome. Eckbert is obsessed with little Alfred learning the Latin to read the books in the Library. He wants to know the secret of the Roman success. I think he kind of worships the Roman gods in a way. Maybe Aethulwulf goes to Frankia and works as a mercenary, and Alfred learns the Latin. Maybe Aethulwulf will steal Eckbert’s thunder. I think Hirst was setting up a friendship with Rollo and Aethulwulf. I think Aethulwulf is going to tell him what he did to the Vikings settlement. I am not sure what Rollo will do, but I think Aethulwulf and Rollo understand each other. Rollo might understand the pain. He had this beautiful wife he loved, and then his dad took her away from him. The death of the Vikings is very much like the scene where Rollo asks Floki “how many Christians must I kill.” Gisla saw Rollo high on mushrooms, in a blind rage, and that would scare the hell out of anyone. Remember Odo’s girlfriend said, she was good, really good.

        Liked by 1 person

      • I think Aethelwulf cares about Judith too but can’t get over his anger at what she’s done. He’s trying though and I think he really does want to be a good ruler, a good king. I think it means something more to him than it does to Ecbert who sees it as the ultimate power and control.

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      • The other thing I was thinking is that Aethulwulf travels to Rome to get an annulment from Judith. We know that Aethulwulf did go to Rome. Maybe he runs his mouth to the pope and tells the pope what Eckbert did to the VIking settlement. Then he goes to Frankia, marries another wife and sends for Alfred. Eckbert could be under interdict for taking his son’s wife plus it was unlawful to destroy that settlement. http://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/interdict

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  4. Perhaps Aethelwulf has succeeded in finding some of his own power in the future. What could any power grabbing for Aethelwulf mean for Ecbert in the future?

    Lots of fans hate Aethelwulf. They view him as some impetuous, religious fanatic who scurries about doing his father’s bidding. (One TV reviewer called him “Aethelwulf the Dull”) Though what I think bothers them more is that Aethelwulf has fought and beaten the favored Viking characters. Whatever one thinks of Aethelwulf, he is certainly not weak and not a coward. He was always formidable as a warrior. During the Season 2 battle, he charged headlong into the Viking lines. And he cut down and nearly killed Rollo.

    When Ecbert made his offers to Judith, it seemed that killing Aethelwulf would be the only way for Ecbert to make good on his promises. Then again, we know that Ecbert never let a promise get in his way. He let Judith’s ear be cut off, and if he finds that she becomes a liability again, he will do whatever suits him.

    Historically, we are told that Aethelwulf did outlive and succeed his father and reigned as King of Wessex for a time. Maybe Hirst will change history again and have Ecbert and/or Judith kill Aethelwulf, which would allow Alfred to ascend faster. But as you point out, there are suggestions that Aethelwulf is starting to “come into his own” and be a real contender against his own father.

    When Aethelwulf massacres the Viking settlement, he was obeying his father, but also doing so out of personal anger. After learning of Judith’s adultery, killing the Viking settlers was his way of getting revenge against Athelstan and all Northmen in general. Ecbert thanks his son privately and they seem to be in father/son unity. Though Aethelwulf sees that he must become a party to his father’s hypocrisy. When Ecbert permits Judith to live after she confesses her adultery, it drives a stronger rift between the two. Aethelwulf’s faith in his father is wavering even before he goes on the mission to Mercia.

    When Aethelwulf tells Kwenthrith that his father probably sent him to Mercia expecting him to die and be used as a pretext for invasion, you see that he is figuring this out for himself just as he says it to Kwenthrith. The maturity and cynicism darken his face as he issues the ultimatum. He sounds more self-assured and threatening. When he returns to Wessex, he is no longer the credulous and naive son who faithfully acted as his father’s brawn. He has come to realize who his father really is and how he maintains his power. So if Ecbert has some scheme of getting rid of his son next season, Aethelwulf will not be so blind to it this time.

    Liked by 1 person

    • I don’t hate him. I don’t hate character except maybe Eckbert. I think people in general these days just hate religion. (there’s reasons for this I won’t get into) Watch that scene when Judith tells Aethulwulf that she has betrayed him with another man.. Athelwulf had an arranged marriage, and I think he was pleased with his pretty wife and then he had a boy. I think he rushed home after defeating Mercia to make love to his wife. Right when he’s going to hold her, she told him there had been someone else and he was crushed/destroyed. I think he thought that Judith really loved him. I think he’s unloved by his father. Maybe at one time, his mother loved him and he wants it again. Cutting off her ear, that had to do with emotional pain IMO not religion. I think he means it, about Alfred and he will not hold it against him. He knows what it’s like to be unloved. Well we know that Alfred learns to read the Latin. HIstory says he used what he learned about the Romans to defeat Ivar the Boneless and the sons of Ragnar. Maybe he learned the Latin in Rome or Frankia. So how is Alfred going to get to Frankia, unless Athelwulf takes him there? Maybe he takes Alfred there and then waits until Eckbert dies to return to England. Historians think it was Aethulwulf that set the stage for Alfred to defeat the Vikings.

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      • The only two people or characters that I could honestly say I feel total disgust, disdain or hatred for right now are Ecbert, and Ragnar! I think they’re kind of mirror images of each other and everyone around them suffers for their narcissism. Hopefully, Ecbert will meet his demise soon as well. I do think there is hope for change in Aethelwulf as well as for his relationship with Judith. Historically, Ecbert was long dead before Alfred was even born and it was Aethelwulf who went to Rome, presumably with young Alfred. Yes, it was Aethelwulf who, for what ever reason, saw something within Alfred that led him to set the groundwork for Alfred to rule eventually.

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      • I even feel a little sorry for Ragnar. I don’t think every scrap of humanity is gone. You know that saying power corrupts. I am hoping he gets it back. I am not sure Ecbert ever had any humanity. Think how cruel it was. Aethulwulf’s wife was pregnant, so well, he couldn’t have sex for a long while after the birth. Then he goes away to fight for his dad, just like a dutiful son. Ecbert preys on Judith and her romanticism. I don’t think Aethulwulf is abusive, he’s just a quiet, austere sort with poor social skills. Judith probably found him dull and unromantic. She didn’t know he loved her. She’s not good at picking up social cues, and he didn’t say anything, being the sort of man he is. She’s just a girl after all. Well Athelstan looks so much better. Not sure he was, but he has a few more social skills. So Athelwulf finds out about the adultery. Then daddy sends him off to Queen K. Aethulwulf has been without a woman a LONG time. Ecbert knows what she’s like. He figures Aethulwulf will sleep with her and she kills him in his sleep. Surprising everyone, Aethulwulf is strong and resists. That could serve him well, he’s not a slave to his appetites. I am going to laugh myself sick, if Aethulwulf goes to Rome and tells the Pope everything. I hope he spills his guts about how daddy stole his wife, how daddy tried to kill him, how daddy destroyed the Vikings settlement and killed his nobleman. I so want him to do it. THe pope makes a papal bull and tells everyone because of their king, they can’t have the sacraments. Then everyone knows and all of daddy’s deeds see the light of day. His subjects will be pissed. Maybe he has to abdicate and leave town! Maybe he can go live in Mercia. I wish Aethulwulf could forgive Judith, but I am not sure he can.

        Liked by 1 person

      • I am hoping for some good, some shred of decency within Aethelwulf… I kind of see him in somewhat that same position as Rollo- Hirst loves his parallels in characters and I can see this playing out like that in some way. Aethelwulf has to struggle with all of his moral conflicts and his Father’s lack of any moral compass, along with the fact that Ecbert continuously uses him and everyone else. Rollo’s struggle is somewhat the same. I would love to see Aethelwulf and Judith find a way to one up Ecbert and finally show him that he is not as powerful as he might think. Aethelwulf taking Alfred to Rome and gaining the Pope’s side over Ecbert would great to see! Judith would have to go along and be a part of it as she is witness to Athelstan’s saintly quality of the stigmata, and witness to much of Ecbert’s treachery as well. If you look at how the matter of Alfred’s right to the throne was handled in history, it does not disallow the older brother’s claims, it mainly just puts Alfred further up the line of inheritance above any nephews that would normally come ahead of him. When brother Athelred gained the throne, there was then agreement that because of this Papal writ Alfred would take precedence over Athelred’s sons. It merely assured that Alfred would have a chance at the crown but did not put him ahead of his older brother. If this were played out here, Aethelwulf would probably be agreeable since his son would be assured of his inheritance.

        Even if Aethelwulf can not forgive Judith, they may be able to work out some arrangement that benefits them both.

        I have a feeling that Ecbert has been setting Judith up from the beginning, befriending her, knowing her secrets so he can then use it all to hold over her head and control her like he’s controlled Aethelwulf and everything else around him!

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      • I don’t know if you saw that scene ,Judy, where it’s in the midst of battle an Aethulwulf stops and Rollo stops and the SEE each other. There’s almost a moment of recognition, oh I know you! I could see Aethulwulf being a sort of invisible child. The kind that is quiet and doesn’t draw attention to himself. Almost as if, if he doesn’t want anyone to see him. Ecbert was mean to Judith. As I said, she’s a Romantic sort and she didn’t want to marry Aethulwulf. He’s sort of dull to her and he preyed on her. Watch from Breakfast club. Allison didn’t want anyone to see her, she was afraid they would see her. Masterful scene https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AqjSJU4LuW0

        Liked by 1 person

  5. Of course he probably knows it was Ecbert, but you can’t just go knock on his Castle door and accuse him outright. No, you need a scheme to get yourself in the door. So, he uses Floki as his scheme, his scapegoat, his peace offering. He pretends to know nothing of the massacre, Ecbert claims innocence of it and would offer up Aethelwulf as his own scapegoat.

    I am glad you brought this up. Once Ecbert had the Viking settlement massacred, so many fans crowed and chanted in anticipation of bloody Viking revenge in the next season. There is this assumption that all the games and diplomacy are done and that Ragnar can simply resort to brute force to solve it all, and it will be like the good old days of Season 1. But as you point out, is Ecbert probably not going to say, “Yes, Ragnar, I tricked you and slaughtered all your settlers. Ha ha! Bring it on!”

    Although Ecbert is probably preparing for a fight, his method has always been to resort to dissembling and deception before resorting to open violence. And if you think about it, he actually can try to pull the “plausible deniability” card here, because he already laid the groundwork for it among his own people. The only person who knows of his true intention to destroy the settlement is Aethelwulf. Ecbert publicly condemned the massacre and apparently punished the persons who participated in it. He can protest his innocence to Ragnar and claim that it was his errant son and rogue nobles who are guilty.

    Of course, I doubt Ragnar will take this at face value, especially after he and Ecbert had that heart-to-heart “corrupt” exchange. But Ecbert will milk it for all its worth to buy some time. Though I do not know how lenient or accommodating Ragnar can be with Wessex. When Ragnar’s subjects learn that Christians have slaughtered their fellow Vikings, many will demand violent retaliation. And with many Vikings suspecting that Ragnar is already too soft on Christians, failing to pursue sufficient revenge may be perilous for him.

    Liked by 1 person

    • I agree, at the point Ragnar is at with his people right now, they might not even seek revenge for his eventual death…but they would seek revenge for the slaughter of their innocent settlers! Ragnar needs to do something about this mess that does not lead back to any implication or blame on him. Realistically in looking at how he left that settlement with no protection, he is the one to blame for not thinking ahead and for under estimating Ecbert’s capacity for corruption. Everyone wants to make Ragnar into this bigger than life hero sort who is never wrong, never makes mistakes and always wins. He made a huge mistake with that settlement and with Athelstan, and it is going to ultimately cost him dearly!

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      • IMO Ragnar didn’t tell the men with Rollo about the failure of the settlement. They don’t know. So they signed the treaty thinking well they are going to share the land just like England. In a way that will be the secret of their success. They didn’t bring any women. The Frankish women lost their husbands. So now Daddy’s home when the men left behind have no choice but to marry the court women. They don’t have the men anymore to do the work, and the Vikings don’t have the women anymore. Watch this clip from Uncle Buck. This is the moment where Buck realizes he can’t take those babies to the race track and make a living on rigged races. Buck has to save TIa! He has to become legitimate, he promised those babies. Daddy’s home! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mzNUbT2sQT4

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      • Think about this little parallel. Rollo betrayed Ragnar, and AThelstan took his place as the brother to Ragnar. Rollo’s relastionship with Bjorn is ruined. Judith/Ecbert betrayed Aethulwulf and Athelstan took his place as husband. Aethulwulf’s relationship with Judith is ruined. Wouldn’t it be delicious revenge if Rollo helps Alfred(Athelstan’s son) take out Ragnar’s sons? and Aethulwulf uses Alfred’s existence to take out Ecbert. IT’s like Winthorpe and Valentine in Trading places screwing the Duke brothers. (just my little fantasy)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0K0oYcGD9V0

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